For the majority of the people, clean water is either from a municipality or from a communal source like well. This water is then diverted to the various parts of the house so that it can be used f or different purposes like laundry, cooking, irrigation to even bathroom use. After use, used water should be treated so that you can get rid of pathogens as well as other chemicals.
In case this water flows back into the clean water supply, it can cause sickness or even death. This problem is normally solved by using backflow preventers.
The primary science which is normally applied in this case is that any liquid want to flow from region of high pressure to an area of low pressure. In any way, the flow of fluid can be controlled by a pressure difference.
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